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Modern sowing games

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Modern sowing games are often modifications of traditional mancala games. In contrast to traditional games, their rules are handed down by written records rather than by talking and their inventor is still known.

Some invented games may, however, be turned into traditional games through a process called 'folklorization' in social sciences. Kalah is already firmly rooted in the popular culture of America and Germany.

The birth of modern sowing games is linked to the rise of capitalism and the game industry (see Mangola and Chuba). Several games were patented (e.g. Banking Ball Game, Robertson's Mancala Game, and Balduman's Mancala Game), although only a few of them were eventually marketed (Kalah). Many games were designed by mathematicians as research problems, but may not be very playable for humans (Ioiwari, Stones in Cups, Nano-Wari). The advent of the internet made it far more easier to communicate new rules and so fostered an unprecedented growth of new games.

These modern games often employ totally new concepts which makes it increasingly difficult to define them as mancala games, so the more general term "sowing games" is used here instead. There are games with reverse sowing (Bulgarian Solitaire and its variants), simultaneous sowing (55Stones), cards (Octagon, Druidenwalzer, Rondell), and stacking (Rondell, Martian Mancala, Pyramidis). Several games are using a two-dimensional board topology. And yet, many invented games are still defined along the characteristics of traditional ones (sowing, cycles, undifferentiated counters, one-dimensional board topology). Most often they are variants of Oware or Dakon as these traditional mancala games are best known in Europe and America.

The tables below list 196 games.

One-dimensional Games

Solitaires

Games, which can only be played by a single person.

Game Year Inventor Country Laps Goal Additional Information
Montenegrinisches Mancala 2010 Rüdeger Baumann Germany single repetition of position variant of Stones in Cups; inspired by Mancala Solitaire (2) (another math-related mancala game by Roland Schröder)
Solitaire Mancala 2008 Tom Bylander USA single as few moves as possible variant of Monokalah, but independently inspired by Kalah
Mancala Solitaire (2) 2005 Roland Schröder Germany single discovering mathematical laws variant of Stones in Cups
Sämann 2005 Michael Engel Austria single capturing counters ---
Random Bulgarian Solitaire 2003 Serguei Popov Brazil single repetition of position reverse sowing
Carolina Solitaire 1997 Andrej Andreev Bulgaria single repetition of position reverse sowing
Yann's Mancala Problem 1997 David Yann France single connecting positions solved (yes)
Circular Composition 1995 Rocco Servedio and Yeong-Nan Yeh Taiwan single repetition of position variant of Stones in Cups
Stones in Cups 1992 Barry Cipra USA single repetition of the initial position after all the counters wind up in the original pit mathematical problem
Montreal Solitaire 1990 Chris Cannings and John Haigh UK single repetition of position reverse sowing
Austrian Solitaire 1985 Ethan Akin and Morton David Davis USA single repetition of position reverse sowing
Deterministic Bulgarian Solitaire 1980 (?) Russia single repetition of position reverse sowing
Mancala Solitaire (1) 1979 Evan Lewis New Zealand multi empty pits first published in Games & Puzzles
Monokalah 1977 Véronique Gautheron France single empty pits a variant of Tchoukaillon
Multitchouka 1977 Véronique Gautheron France multi empty pits a variant of Tchoukaillon
Tchoukaillon 1977 Véronique Gautheron France single empty pits a variant of Tchuka Ruma
Tchuka Ruma pre-1892 Édouard Lucas (?) France multiple empty pits a variant of Dakon

Two-player Games

Games, which must be played by two persons.

Game Year Inventor Country Laps Goal Additional Information
Duovallis 2012 Frederik Adams Germany multi moving last four-row game with unusual distribution path
Chesscala 2011 Francois Tremblay & David Mustoe USA single capturing counters a hybrid of Chess and Mancala
F.I.L.O 2011 Richard Hutnik USA single last move (+ 2 special winning conditions) one-row game with stacking; original game was flawed, but two rules changes are suggested by the author to fix the problem
Arkaneum Merchant 2010 Emir Fithri Bin Samsuddin Malaysia single capturing counters Kalah variant for iPhone or iPod touch 2.2.1 or later
Dogon 2010 Ralf Gering Germany single capturing counters Oware variant
Dracala 2010 Ralf Gering Germany single capturing counters Kalah variant
Toguz Poddavki 2010 Ralf Gering Germany single capturing counters Toguz Kumalak variant
10 Mighty Men 2009 Ken Maher Canada single capturing counters spiced-up game system based on Ayoayo
Armada 2009 (?) USA single capturing counters Kalah spiced-up with random events
Tuca Tuca 2009 Christoph Breitbach Germany multiple capturing counters first modern game, which employs "Indian-style" sowing
BalaGwari 2008 Colin Leamon UK single capturing counters also named "QuatreCala"
Biwele 2008 Luca Cerrato Italy multi capturing counters inspired by Bechi
Trias 2008 Ralf Gering Germany multi moving last three rows; based on Judaeo-Christian numerology
Afro-Celt Mancala System 2007 Richard Hutnik USA single capturing counters based on the Stonehenge game
Manji 2007 Ralf Gering Germany multi capturing counters based on Buddhist philosophy
Volcano Race 2007 Jonathan Hartshorn USA single capturing counters Kalah variant with Icehouse pieces (first called Martian Mancala)
mikro tsoro 2007 Matthias Liszt Austria multi capturing counters -
Zig Zag 2007 Amanda Joy Lemons and Clark Daniel Rodeffer USA multi capturing counters -
Misère 55Stones 2006 Ralf Gering Germany multi capturing counters simultaneous moves; shared pits; no draws
Awele Bohnanza 2006 Silvano Sorrentino Italy single capturing counters Oware variant
Bao 6x2 2006 Xevi Noè i Nogueiras Spain multiple capturing counters ---
Cranium Grab & Go Mancala Mania - Purple Stone Variant 2006 (?) USA single capturing counters Kalah variant
Diffusion 2006 Mark Steere USA single empty pits Kalah variant; overlapping cycles; no draws
Four-rank Diffusion 2006 Mark Steere USA single empty pits Kalah variant; overlapping cycles; no draws
Kariba 2006 Frank Stark Germany single capturing counters Cups variant
Kauri 2006 Ralf Gering Germany single capturing counters -
long night game 2006 Matthias Liszt Austria multi capturing counters Vai Lung Thlan variant
Da Vinci's Mancala 2005 Paul Micarelli and Vivienne Springer USA single pattern-building; capturing counters Kalah variant
Kalawacki 2005 Sandra Aleksieva, Jenny Arrsjö, Daniel Björk, Markus Dahlström, Henrik Vrenning Sweden single capturing counters variant of Kalah; luck
Mancala Spellorama 2005 Tracey Wood Canada multi capturing counters and spelling words spelling game; Sungka variant
Michael's Parteiisches Rondell 2005 Michael Reitz Germany both capturing counters card game with perfect information; stacking game; no draws
Michael's Rondell 2005 Michael Reitz Germany both capturing counters card game with perfect information; stacking game; shared pits; no draws
Michael's Rondell mit Reservierung 2005 Michael Reitz Germany both capturing counters card game with perfect information; stacking game; shared pits; no draws
Parteiisches Rondell 2005 Ralf Gering Germany both capturing counters card game with perfect information; stacking game; no draws
Rondell 2005 Ralf Gering Germany both capturing counters card game with perfect information; stacking game; subvariant with shared pits; no draws
Rondell mit Reservierung 2005 Ralf Gering Germany both capturing counters card game with perfect information; stacking game; shared pits; no draws
Afrika 2004 Ralf Gering Germany single capturing counters -
El Mirall 2004 (?) Catalonia single repetition of the initial position game of coordination; solitaire-like; no winners or losers
Geisterfahrer 2004 Ralf Gering Germany both no move Kalah variant; no draws
Pas de Deux 2004 Ralf Gering Germany single capturing counters Oware variant; double-moves
Progressive Mancala 2004 Ralf Gering Germany multi capturing counters progressive moves; shared pits; no draws
Superwari 2004 Bill Taylor New Zealand single capturing counters Oware variant
Two-handed Bulgarian Solitaire 2004 Tim Bancroft USA single repetition of position reverse sowing
55Stones 2002 Ralf Gering Germany multi capturing counters simultaneous moves; shared pits; no draws
Canicas 2002 Walter Joris Belgium single making territory paper-and-pencil game
Cross-Endodoi 2002 William Daniel Troyka USA multi capturing counters -
Martian Mancala 2002 Dave Mattingly USA multi capturing counters Sungka variant with Icehouse pieces
Tornado 2002 Walter Joris Belgium single last move paper-and-pencil game; Cirk variant
Cross-Kalah 2001 William Daniel Troyka USA single capturing counters Kalah variant
Cross-Wari 2001 William Daniel Troyka USA single capturing counters Oware variant
Hackaback 2001 Andrew B. Perkis UK single last move unequal forces
Ioiwari 2001 Gyula Horvath Hungary single capturing counters solved (first-player win)
MiniMancala 2001 Christian Freeling Netherlands single last move solved (draw)
Numercy 2000 Sam Nooh K. Al-Jajjoka UK both ending moves in certain holes abacus-like game for learning addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division of numbers
Druidenwalzer 1999 Michael Rieneck Germany single capturing holes card game imitating a mancala game (Druidenwalzer = Sowing)
Eppstein's Mancala Game 1999 David Eppstein USA single unable to move reverse sowing; no draws
étoile 1999 Michael Palm Germany single pattern cross-over between Four-in-a-Row and mancala games; stacking
Slangenspel 1999 Fred Horn Netherlands single capturing counters intertwisted rows
Banan-Cala 1998 Vince Kurr USA single capturing counters Kalah variant
Cirk 1998 Corné van Moorsel Netherlands single last move shared pits; no draws
Kid-Cala (Beginner's Version) 1998 Vince Kurr USA single empty pits Kalah variant
Atomic Wari 1996 Jeff Erickson USA single last move Oware variant; shared pits
Nyakun 1996 Didier Guillion France single capturing counters Vai Lung Thlan variant
Partisan Sowing 1996 Jeff Erickson USA single last move Sowing with partisan counters
Reaping 1996 Jeff Erickson USA single last move reverse Sowing
Widdershins 1996 David Parlett UK both capturing counters card game
Amboseli Game 1995 Ringo Skibbe Germany multi last move name = exotism
Sowing 1994 John Horton Conway USA single last move first one-rank mancala game; shared pits
Awari 1991 L. Victor Allis, Maarten van der Meulen, and H. Jaap van den Herik Netherlands, USA single capturing counters Oware variant made by Computer scientists; solved game (perfect play is a draw)
Catch 19 1981 (?) USA single capturing counters stacking
Glass Bead Game 1979 Christian Freeling Netherlands single capturing counters Oware variant
Micro-Wari 1977 Assia Popova and André Deledicq France single capturing counters one of the smallest mancala games
Nano-Wari 1977 Assia Popova and André Deledicq France single repetition of board position game of contemplation; smallest mancala game; no winners or losers; solved
Sahara 1976 (?) Germany single capturing counters Kalah variant
Mankka 1975 Kent Barker Canada single capturing counters -
Ägyptisches Muschelspiel 1972 (?) Germany single last move name = exoticism
Coin Duel late 1960s Arthur and Wald Amberstone USA multi capturing counters Sungka variant
Cups 1965 Arthur and Wald Amberstone USA single capturing counters Kalah variant
Fergen Goobalay late 1950s (?) Somalia multi capturing counters variant of Layli Goobalay; neutral holes
Banking Ball Game 1941 Serge B. Escuadra USA single capturing counters similar to Kalah
Kalah 1940 William Julius Champion Jr. USA single capturing counters the most popular modern mancala game; often just called "mancala"; Sungka variant
Robertson's Mancala Game 1936 Frederick Henry Robertson Jamaica single capturing counters Oware variant
Chuba 1891 Erwin H. Richards USA multi last move four-rank mancala game heavily based on Tchouba (Mozambique); no draws

Group Games (>2 Players)

This includes two-player games and solitaires, which can be played by 3 and more people.

Game Year Inventor Country Players Laps Goal Additional Information
Elementalist 2013 Robert Roskam USA 2-6 single capturing "circular casting" resembles the sowing of mancala games
Round Trip 2013 David Short USA 4 single completing goals active cubes are placed in each space they wish to bypass, which resembles the sowing of mancala games; game of luck
Bag of Bones 2011 Joshua Conroy USA 2-4 single conquering "graves" first called "Bone Pile"; hidden information
Wendy im Galopp 2009 Kirsten Hiese Germany 2-4 single capturing counters beautiful theme
Orancala 2006 Sjaak Griffioen Netherlands 2-4 single capturing counters Oware variant commercialized as "Florancala" in 2010
Spectral Reapers 2006 Clark Daniel Rodeffer USA 2-6 single capturing counters experimental
Tippy's Mancala Game 2006 Gary Tippy USA 2-4 multiple capturing counters involving luck (moves are determined by a spinner)
Trip-n-Trap 2006 Juan Rosado-Galarza Puerto Rico 2-6 multi capturing counters ---
Cow Poke 2005 Clark Daniel Rodeffer USA 2-6 single capturing counters card game; luck
Pipeline 2005 Jay Laird USA 2-5 single capturing counters Oware variant; flawed
4-Player Mancala 2001 (?) Gary MacLeod (?) USA 2-4 single capturing counters Kalah variant
Tea Party 2001 Clark Daniel Rodeffer USA 2 or 4 none capturing counters most irregular game; no draws; experimental
Nasty Crossroads early 2000s Sue and Joe Hanson USA 4 single capturing counters cross-shaped board
Basic Crossroads early 2000s Sue and Joe Hanson USA 4 single capturing counters cross-shaped board
Bao Arabica 1998 Matthias Kumpernaß Germany 2-4 single capturing counters name = exoticism; Oware variant
Calady 1998 Alexander H. Slocum USA 4 single capturing counters cross-shaped board; Kalah variant (versions 1-2); Oware variant (version 3)
HyperCalady 1998 Joe Foley USA 4 single capturing counters cross-shaped board; Kalah variant
Space Walk 1997 Rüdiger Dorn Germany 2-5 single retaining counters and chips Kalah variant; double-moves
Njaka's Mancala Game 1991 Dim Njaka USA 2-4 multi capturing counters Ba-awa variant
Pyramidis 1988 Roland Siegers Belgium 2 or 4 single removing five pyramids of your own color cross-shaped, if played by 4 players; stacking
Gulek 1987 Michael Winkelmann Austria 2-6 single capturing counters circular track
Quindo 1984 Hajo Bücken Germany 1-n single removing all the counters co-operative game (either everybody wins or everybody loses)
Balduman's Mancala Game 1979 Agapito B. Balduman USA 2-3 multi capturing counters Sungka variant
Pass It On 1978 (?) USA 2-4 single empty pits; penalty points variant of Ruma and Kalah; no draws
Octagon 1975 Matt Crispis UK (?) 2-5 single capturing counters card game
Swahili 1968 (?) USA 2-4 both capturing counters name = exoticism; similar to Kalah and Sungka
Grand Arabian Oh-Wah-Ree 1962 Alex Randolph USA 2-4 multiple capturing holes ordinary pits can be turned into stores
Grand Coastal Oh-Wah-Ree 1962 Alex Randolph USA 2-4 single capturing holes Oware variant
Grand Dog-Gone Oh-Wah-Ree 1962 Alex Randolph USA 2-4 multiple capturing holes Ba-awa variant
Grand Oh-Wah-Ree 1962 Alex Randolph USA 2-4 single capturing holes Oware variant
Oh-Wah-Ree 1962 Alex Randolph USA 2-4 single capturing counters Oware variant
Ruma 1930s Mr Punga Belgium (as of place of first publication) 2-4 single empty pits; penalty points precursor of Pass It On and possibly Kalah; marketed in 1956 as "Dead Pan"; no draws

Two-dimensional Games

Solitaires

Games, which can only be played by a single person.

Game Year Inventor Country Laps Goal Additional Information
Vertigo 2008 Bernard Vander Beken Belgium single pattern-building Volcano variant; solitaire
Solitaire Volcano 2000 (?) Kristin Looney (?) USA single capturing counters Solitaire variant of Volcano

Two-player Games

Games, which must be played by two persons.

Game Year Inventor Country Laps Goal Additional Information
Kala 2013 Daniel Krieg & Steffen Mühlhäuser Germany single making the last move part of the game system "COPA"
Sow and Erode 2013 Richard Hutnik USA single capturing counters round board with four circles of 16 spaces each; stacking game with perfect information in which the board position "erodes" and leaves the players fewer and fewer options
Caduceus 2011 Bill Taylor New Zealand single last move mancala-like "leave-a-trail" mechanic akin to sowing
Dorn Bones 2011 Jon Ivar Toennesen Norway single capturing the attacked player leaves one disc on each space
Graveyard Shift 2011 Isaiah Tanenbaum USA single capturing ("collecting four body parts") players try to create the Frankenstein monster
Sow? 2011 Richard Hutnik USA single bearing-off played on half a checkerboard
Amoeba 2010 Masahiro Nakajima Japan single chess variant stacking game
Freedom 2010 Veljko Cirovic & Nebojsa Sankovic Serbia single territory leave-a-trail mechanism
Mini Quincala Knocking 2010 Ulf Åberg Sweden multiple capturing stacking
Murus Gallicus 2009 Phillip Leduc USA single breakthrough game with impenetrable walls reminiscent of Julius Caesar's Gallic Wars
Storm 2009 Martin Windischer Austria single become immobilized challenging game
The Colony 2008 Jeph Stahl Canada multiple capturing counters beautiful theme
Seo's Unknown Game 2007 (?) (?) China (?) single last move "leave-a-trail" mechanism akin to sowing
Fishpond Mancala 2007 Donald Philip Green USA single capturing counters; pattern-building published variant of Stoplight Mancala
Doncala 2006 Donald Green USA single capturing counters; pattern-building variant of Stoplight Mancala
Stoplight Mancala 2006 Donald Green USA single capturing counters; pattern-building ---
Hexano 2005 Jeremiah Wittevrongel Canada single capturing counters variant of Volcano
Hexano-Duel 2005 Jeremiah Wittevrongel Canada single capturing counters variant of Volcano
Two-dimensional Sowing 1996 Jeff Erickson USA single last move variant of Sowing
Exxit 2003 Vincent Everaert France single largest territory sowing mechanism is called "dancing"
Blue Nile 2002 William Daniel Troyka USA single moving last shared sowing
BigBasin 2001 William I. Chang USA single reach a position experimental game; variant of Cascades; "leave-a-trail" mechanism akin to mancala-like sowing
Buku 2001 Jorge Gomez Arrausi Spain single capturing counters played on a Chess board
Cascades 2001 William I. Chang USA single larger territory "leave-a-trail" mechanism akin to mancala-like sowing; broken
Snail Trail 2001 Don Philip Green USA single larger territory "leave-a-trail" mechanism akin to mancala-like sowing
UnStack 2001 João Pedro Neto Portugal single capturing counters stacking
Slime-Moku early 2000s Bill Taylor (?) New Zealand (?) single pattern building "shared" sowing
Cash in Hand 2000 Cameron Bolitho Browne Australia single capturing counters two-dimensional; flawed game; move mechanism reminiscent of mancala
Nanelé 2000 Xevi Noè i Nogueiras & his friend Guerre Spain multiple capturing counters ---
Tumbling Down 2000 Michael Shuck USA single capturing counters stacking
Inchworm 2000 Clark D. Rodeffer USA single capturing counters stacking; flawed
Classic Quincala 1997 Ulf Åberg Sweden multiple reach a position stacking; based on an idea from 1977
Conga 1995 Martin Franke Germany single pattern cross-over between Four-in-a-Row and mancala games
Slimetrail 1992 Bill Taylor New Zealand single reach a position first game with "shared" sowing that leaves a common track
Tower of Power 1976 Michael Baldwin UK single capturing counters stacking
Intermedium 1976 Matt Crispis UK single capturing a given hole Chess-like

Group Games (>2 Players)

This includes two-player games and solitaires, which can be played by 3 and more people.

Game Year Inventor Country Players Laps Goal Additional Information
Attack of the Mutant Moss from Outer Space! 2011 Ian Hedberg (?) 4 single reaching a space adjacent to a hole in the fence (moss & zombie team) the moss is grown similar to the sowing in mancala games; two teams (one of them controlling the moss and the zombies, the other one the grave robbers); game of luck using dice
Lurch 2011 Dan Lepage (?) 2-6 single capturing "zombies" A stack of zombies is moved any number of spaces in any direction, leaving one zombie behind on each hex you pass through.
Rum Run 2011 Alex Coulombe USA 2-4 single claiming barrels Mancala-like sowing of rum "barrels" (video)
The Walking Dead 2011 Keith Tralins and Brian David-Marshall 2011 1-6 single reaching some locations A trail of zombies is left behind.
Trajan 2011 Stefan Feld Germany 2-4 single acquire "victory points" Euro-style game with mancala-like sowing (video)
Tricala 2011 Myles Wallace USA 2-3 multiple capturing counters & pattern-building played on an equilateral triangular board (instructional video)
Zombie Shuffle 2011 David Spieth USA 2-4 single capturing counters to complete a "zombie" game of incomplete information
Caldera 2010 Kristin Looney USA 2-4 single capturing counters Volcano variant
Iceland Volcano 2010 Jan Divecky Czech Republic 2-4 single capturing counters Volcano variant
The Doldrums 2010 Zac Dettwyler USA 3+ single "ending the story" a role-playing game of "caste warfare, alliances, and lonely heroes"
KASKA 2008 Andreas E. Verweyen Germany 2-4 single capturing counters one of the smallest boards; flawed
Scrambled Volcano 2008 Jim Dunaway USA 2-4 single capturing counters Volcano variant
Coastercano 2007 James M Hazelton III (?) 2-4 single capturing counters Mega Volcano variant with treehouse dies
Plain Earth Volcano 2007 (?) (?) 2-4 single capturing counters Volcano variant
THI` 2007 Andreas E. Verweyen Germany 2, 4 single bearing off stacking game; first called "Transporter"
Calcala 2006 Lloyd Krassner USA 2-4 multiple capturing counters interesting rules
Melting Volcano 2006 Roy Levien USA 1-6 single capturing counters Volcano variant
Ubervolcano 2006 Adam Kopczenski USA 2-4 single capturing counters variant of Volcano
Volcano Island 2006 Simon Graham UK 3-4 single largest territory (expressed by "settlements", "villages", "towns" and "cities") two lava flows ("leave a trail" mechanism akin to mancala)
Wayfinder 2006 Benjamin Corliss USA 1-4 single capturing counters real time element
Compass Volcano 2005 Nate Straight USA 2-4 single capturing counters variant of Volcano
Louis XIV 2005 Rüdiger Dorn Germany 2-4 single largest territory some squares can only be reached if stones are left on their way behind ("leave a trail" mechanic)
Mega Hexano 2005 Jeremiah Wittevrongel Canada 2-4 single capturing counters variant of Volcano
Raubritter 2005 Rüdiger Dorn Germany 2-4 single largest territory also called "Robber Knights"
Goa 2004 Rüdiger Dorn Germany 2-4 single better resource management auction game; "leave a trail" mechanic (Auction marks are communally placed leaving a trail behind.)
Mini Volcano 2003 Ryan McGuire USA 1-4 single capturing counters variant of Volcano
Mega Volcano 2002 (?) Andrew L. Looney (?) USA 1-6 single capturing counters variant of Volcano
Devil Bunny Hates The Earth 2001 James Ernest USA 2-5 single capturing; moving "Devil Bunny" to your machine dice game; luck; shared pits, pentagonal board
Die Händler von Genua 2001 Rüdiger Dorn Germany 2-5 single most precious territory ("buildings") negotion game; "leave a trail" mechanic (The merchant must leave a disc behind on each space that the tower visits, which can move up to four spaces each turn.)
Snake Pit early 2000s Bill Taylor (?) New Zealand (?) 3 single moving last "shared" sowing
Volcano 2000 Kristin Looney USA 1-6 single capturing counters abstract Icehouse game
Esiema 1989 Michael Winkelmann Austria 2-9 single capturing counters ---
Contigo 1974 Frank Thibault USA 4 single capturing the opponents' "key pawns" cross between mancala and n-in-a-row games
Myra 1955 Michael Winkelmann Austria 2-3 single capturing the enemy king Chess variant; different ways of moving including sowing and reverse sowing

Important Notes

  • An Oware variant is any single-lap game in which two or three stones are captured (this is a rather inclusive definition).
  • A Ba-awa variant is any multi-lap games in which groups of four are captured, even during moving.
  • A Vai Lung Thlan variant is any single-lap game in which singletons are captured.
  • A Kalah variant is any single-lap, multi-player game with functional endholes or stores.
  • A Sungka variant is any multi-lap, multi-player game with functional endholes.
  • A Tchuka Ruma variant is any solitaire game with functional endholes.

See also

Traditional mancala games

Copyright

© Wikimanqala.
By: Ralf Gering
Under the CC by-sa 2.5 license.

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